First, review what you learnt in lessons 1 thru 3. Then, proceed with this lesson.

Get comfortable in your voice quickly, by either singing the foundational notes, S... P... S'... or simply humming "mmm..." in the lower S.

First, we start this lesson by singing the 2 songs we learnt earlier, Rama Kaho and Hare Murare.

Next, to keep the class lively, we will quiz ourselves as follows:

- What are the notes we learnt called? The answer is "Shuddha" notes or "regular" notes. We will learn other notes (the ones not labelled in the complete Hindusthani keyboard) in a later lesson.
- Ask someone to play a random regular note in the octave we sing in and guess the note. It is harder than you can imagine initially but with regular practice, your ears will get attuned to the tones and you will ace this in a few weeks.

Practice the following Aaroha and Avaroha tunes, first by singing the notes and then using aakaar. Use the pictures of the Western and complete Hindusthani keyboards below for your reference. Until now, we only sang in one octave (8 notes). In Hindusthani, an octave is referred to as a Saptak (7 notes, considering that the 8th note, the S' is basically the beginning of the next higher octave. The 3 Saptaks in Hindusthani music are:

- Madra Saptak (or) Low Octave, with dots under the notes - I use a comma (,) on the computer
- Madhya Saptak (or) Normal Octave - what we have sung so far and what we sing mostly
- Taar Saptak (or) High Octave, with dots on top of the notes - I use an apostrophe (') on the computer

You may either use your own keyboard or piano or an online keyboard during your practice.

- (Aaroha) SRSRG RGRGM GMGMP MPMPD PDPDN DNDNS' (Avaroha) S’NS'ND NDNDP DPDPM PMPMG MGMGR GRGRS
- Now, we will stretch a little bit into Taar Saptak and the Madra Saptak (Aaroha) SRS RGR GMG MPM PDP DND NSN S'R'S' (Avaroha) S'NS' NDN DPD PMP MGM GRG RSR SN,S

**Shuklaam Baradaram Vishnum**Sashivarnam Chathur Bhujam Prasanna Vadanam Dyaaye Sarva Vignopa Shanthaye